Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Human Genome Project Essay -- Science Scientific Research Papers

The Human Genome Project Introduction The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a plan to develop a detailed genetic and physical map of the human genome. As a result of this project, it is predicted that vast increases in technology and biological approaches to the molecular world will occur. It was speculated that this project would take two decades. Some scientist did not even think it could be done because the technology was not ready for this kind of project. Multiple issues have arisen since the original concept for this genome project was introduced. Never before had mankind faced such issues in one project. These issues include such topics as biotechnology, ethical dilemmas, social and individual implications, health and medical care, and scientific research. When the project was started in 1990, technology could only sequence 300 base pairs at a time. This made mapping (location of genes) and sequencing (the number and pattern of "letters") of the entire 3 billion base pairs seems like an insurmountable task (Collins & Jegalian, 1999). Limited technology drew critics of the project with doubt that a complete map could be accomplished. Development of technology proved to be the least controversial issue. Ethical issues often became the center of concern. Also, the fear of attempting to clone a genetically superior race became a key issue. Many of the other issues stemmed from ethical concerns. Health and medical care implications could have a profound effect on society and individuals through prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic diseases. Thanks to the HGP things like insight into basic biology, development of new technology, and medicine may be increased drastically. History The official start of t... ...Human Genome Project: where did it come from, where is it going? American Journal of Human Genetics, 51, 1-6. - Spengler, S. (1997). Emerging technologies from the Human Genome Project for understanding susceptibility and risk. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 4, 235-238 - van Ommen, G., Bakker, E., & den Dunnen, J. (1999). The human genome project and the future of diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The Lancet, 354 (suppl 1), 5-10. - Young, D. & Leonard, D. (1999). Issues in genetic testing. Clinical Chemistry, 45(6), 915-926. Websites - http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/genome/ - http://www.celera.com/ - http://www.nih.gov/ - http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/NEWS/about_HGP.html - http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/HGP/ - http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/home.html - http://www.sciencemag.org

Monday, January 13, 2020

The History of Policing

The history of policing in the United States is broke down into three general eras they are the political era from 1840 to1930, the reform era from 1930 to 1980 and the community era from 1980 to present. As we look at these eras we find that some of the tactics and policies that were effective in one era were quite ineffective in another or in contrast that some tactics that were thought ineffective are now being considered necessary for an effective and productive police force. In the political era officers were appointed by politicians and would remain loyal to those who appointed them. In this era officers provided several services that would include running soup lines, helping immigrants find jobs and establish themselves, the officers would at times allow new immigrants temporary housing in the station house. The main means of patrolling their beat was on foot. These officers would also live in the neighborhoods that they patrolled this would prove to be both beneficial and detrimental. The beneficial part was that they knew their neighborhood they had a personal stake in maintaining order. The detrimental part was that they had a tendency to keep those who â€Å"did not belong† or â€Å"strangers† out of the neighborhood by using â€Å"Curbstone justice† this often resulted in discrimination. In the reform era the public grow tired of the corruption, brutality and unfairness of police forces and wanted to follow J. Edgar Hoover's reform of the Bureau of Investigation. Those that wanted these changes became known as â€Å"reformers† and they demanded change, they saw politicians as the problem with policing and wanted to remove the ties between politics and police. These reformers began to get changes made across the country things like civil service exams, making it illegal for an officer to live in the area that he patrolled and making changes to how the chief of police was hired or fired. Changes were also made to the why officers did their jobs and even what their jobs were. Police focused on law enforcement and controlling crime all of the other duties became Social work. This system removed foot patrols and wanted officers to be distant and removed from the communities they served, the belief was that this would enable them to administer the law in an objective manner. In 1967 the â€Å"President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice ratified this orientation: heretofore, Police had been conceptualized as an agency of urban government; the President's Commission reconceptualized them as part of the Criminal Justice System.† The community era started in the 1980's however the research that much of this era is based on began in the late 1970's in places like Flint Michigan were foot patrols were brought back throughout the city. The city even voted twice to raise taxes in order to maintain the foot patrols. The result of the foot patrols were â€Å"reduced fear, increased citizen satisfaction with police and increased morale and job satisfaction of the officers.† Other programs like the â€Å"Safe and Clean Neighborhood Program† in New Jersey had similar success. Research also showed that increasing other types of patrols that focus on police-citizen interactions also had similar results. These studies lead to a new way of policing referred to as community policing. This new tactic put officers back in the communities and changed what was expected of them. Officers were now tasked with maintaining order, negotiating conflicts and solving community problems these tasks require neighborhood and community involvement. Community policing encourages people to bring problems to an officer or to a local police station and gives the officer and the station the ability to devise and implement solutions, it is also a strategy that allows officers to learn what is expected or wanted by their community then gives the officer the ability to deliver results that will meet these expectations. The intension is to deliver on what the community wants and in turn gain the trust and cooperation of the community, this trust and cooperation will in turn reduce crime and gain effective information from the community when needed to solve crime.The history of policing in the United States has gone through several changes since the political era of the 1840's. With wide spread changes made in the reform era of the 1930's that took police away from the community and kept them distant from those that they served. It took research conducted in the late 1970's and early 1980's to discover that better information on crime and criminals could be obtained by police from citizens and that patrol officers were in the best position to obtain this information. This research has lead to the community policing that we see in today's police departments.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Early Influences of Rome - 1710 Words

The early influences of Rome, according to the text, were the people of Etruia and Greece. It is said that it all started in the southernmost Etruscan centers[1]. These places, Caere, Tarquinii, Vulci, and Veii, were the first city-states to be formed. It wasn’t long before the great city of Rome would rise. In this essay, we will briefly comment on the founders of Rome and their influences. Taking each part of history step by step hoping to uncover the secrets of Rome’s first steps towards become a great empire. The first thought of discussion will be on the Etruscans, the people of Etruia. The Etruscans played music, danced, did acrobatics, and held foot and chariot races[2]. This group of people were incredibly†¦show more content†¦There were however, other things besides religion and grammar that Rome received; things like the Etruscan games are one of the many things that Rome adapted from its neighbors. The Etruscans influence on Rome had to do with locat ion. Towards the end of the 7th century BCE, the Etruscans expanded their territories. Their territories included Northern Italy, with the Po Valley league, and the Etruscan city-states controlled areas over Latium, which also included Rome and Campania to the South. Hence the evolution of influence begins. In Livy, Romulus mentions one of the Etruscan influences, â€Å"I am inclined to agree with those who think that as a class of public officers was borrowed from the same people from whom the ‘sella curulis’ and the ‘toga praetexta’ were adopted- their neighbors, the Etruscans- so the number itself also was taken from them.† In this quote, not only does Romulus mention the influence in clothes but the influence in government as well. The number he mentions at the end of the quote has to do with twelve lictors he called to service. A lictor is a public officer who attended on the chief Roman magistrates†¦ the office of lictor is said to have b een derived by Romulus from the Etruscans.[10] The twelve lictors were responsible for passing judgment on criminals after a trail. This included Roman citizens, foreigners and slaves as well. Government was in fact another thingShow MoreRelatedEtruscans1697 Words   |  7 PagesEtruscans: The Building Block of Rome The dominant early settlers on the Italian peninsula were a non-Indo-European-speaking people known as the Etruscans (Coffin Stacey 168). The Etruscans were among three groups of people from the East that entered Italy as colonists and later as rulers of various segments of the peninsula. The Etruscans came into Italy about 800 B.C.E. following the Adriatic Sea. Although our knowledge of the Etruscans is severely limited by the fact that their languageRead MoreAncient Roman Civilization And Modern Times936 Words   |  4 Pagestourist to experience the ancient civilization through much of what Ancient Rome’s engineers enduring achievements, namely, temples, baths, aqueducts and roads (Temin, The economy of the early Roman Empire, 2006). Beyond the physical structures that survived the millennia, there are numerous modern cultural influences that are readily seen in everything from popular culture with extensive gladiator movies to the architecture of the nation’s capital building (James, 2008). However, the most importantRead MoreWomen During The Ancient World1445 Words   |  6 Pagesstereotypes, which limited their freedoms and abilities. Two such civilizations were Ancient Rome and Early Modern England. England during the 15th and 16th centuries supported the Anglican faith. Women, by divine belief, were created as subordinates to men; the rationale for this constitutes the creation of Eve from Adam’s rib, suggesting that women were made for man. Sexist bias was also supported in Rome (753 B.C. to 1453 A.D.) where the traditional ambitions of all women were to wed unknowinglyRead More The Roman Empire and Its Influence on Western Civilization Essay1489 Words   |  6 PagesThe Roman Empire and Its Influence on Western Civilization   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Romes vast empire lasted for an amazing one thousand-year reign. Half of it referred to as the republic, and the other as the empire. However, after its fall in 5oo-a.d. Rome has still remained in existence through its strong culture, architecture, literature, and even religion (Spielvogel 175). Even after its disappearance as a nation Rome left behind a legacy that will never be forgotten. Its ideals and traditions have been immolatedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book By Nikolaus Pevsner Essay1250 Words   |  5 Pageswork. In Strong’s preface to his book, there is an overview about the influences of propaganda in artwork given by his editor, Nikolaus Pevsner, in the foreword of the book. He states that Works of art, especially sculpture, were part of everyday life in ancient cities. Sculptures and painting gave form to the gods, commemorated the great men of the State, celebrated the events of history, depicted the dead on their tombs. In Rome they took on an even greater significance. They became an essentialRead MoreRome and Its Lasting Impression on the World1538 Words   |  7 PagesThe Roman Empire and Its Influence on Western Civilization Rome s vast empire lasted for an amazing one thousand-year reign. Half of it referred to as the republic, and the other as the empire. However, after its fall in 5oo-a.d. Rome has still remained in existence through its strong culture, architecture, literature, and even religion (Spielvogel 175). Even after its disappearance as a nation Rome left behind a legacy that will never be forgotten. Its ideals and traditions have been immolatedRead MoreHow Can Historians Make Use Of The Stories That The Romans1723 Words   |  7 PagesHow can historians make use of the stories that the Romans told about their founders and foundations? Abstract. There are two distinct stories regarding the foundation of ancient Rome, with claims to two founders. The story of Romulus and Remus describes the literal foundation of the city where as the Aeneid addresses the origins in the foundations of the Roman people being descended from Aeneas. In regards to their use to historians, though there is debate as to the legitimacy of historical factsRead MoreGreek And Roman Civilizations : Greece And Ancient Civilizations1503 Words   |  7 Pages Greek and Roman Civilizations In examining the impact that the ancient world has had on modern Western civilization, the two ancient civilizations which are frequently understood as having had the greatest influence are Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. These two civilizations would eventually come to shape much of what would become the modern European culture, politics and society, and by extension, a vast proportion of global culture and society. In scrutinizing the trajectory of modern historyRead MoreGreek And Roman Civilizations : Greece And Ancient Civilizations1498 Words   |  6 Pages Greek and Roman Civilizations In examining the impact that the ancient world has had on modern Western civilization, the two ancient civilizations which are frequently understood as having had the greatest influence are Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. These two civilizations would eventually come to shape much of what would become the modern European culture, politics and society, and by extension, a vast proportion of global culture and society. In examining the trajectory of modern historyRead MoreThe Civilization Of Ancient Rome1366 Words   |  6 Pages The Civilization of Ancient Rome and The Time of the Kings, From Republic to Empire: Romulus and Remus, the Etruscans, the Greeks and early influences HST 101 Spring 2015 Lance Raebel Pima Community College West Campus Tucson, Arizona Table of Contents Introduction I. Romulus And Remus founding story a. Twin brothers i. Considered to be half gods ii. Rasied by a she wolf b. Father the god of war i. Rapes Rhea Silvia their mother c. Find Rome i. Romulus then kills Remus for leadership II

Friday, December 27, 2019

Police Misconduct And Criminal Justice - 923 Words

Introduction Police executives have always had different issues within the police department. Most police executives try to find a quick fix in order to solve the issue of police misconduct. Police misconduct is defined as inappropriate action taken by police officers in relation with their official duties (Police Misconduct Law Legal Definition, n.d.). In order to solve this issue, one must acknowledge their different challenges, overcome the â€Å"code of silence†, and find out the role of organizational culture. Challenges Facing Police Executives There are many challenges facing the police executives in the 21st century, such as civil disorder and criminal prosecution of officers. In recent years there have been quite a few civil disorders. A civil disorder is a situation in which some citizens behave in a way that threatens the wellbeing of other citizens or the peace of a community (Cambridge Dictionaries, 2016). In the past seven years there has been a quite a few civil disorders in the United States, such as the 2016 Donald Trump Chicago rally protest, the 2014 protest in Ferguson, Missouri, and the protests in New York, New York and Berkeley California after a grand jury did not indict a police officer in the death of Eric Garner. Due to the causes of some of these protests, the public have a distrust and lack of confidence in the law and the legal system (Tyler, 2013). As a police executive, one would have to make decisions in hopes not only to not causeShow MoreRelatedPolice Mis conduct And The Criminal Justice System1039 Words   |  5 PagesPolice unethical operations, imposes high cost on police, the criminal justice system, and society. Criminal activity by a police officer undermines the basic integrity of law enforcement and the grounds which the laws were based on. Regardless if an officer takes a small bribe or is involve in a drug trade, the corruption forever change the relationship between communities and the face of justice. . . Unethical Police Operation When a Police Officer abuses his authority, it is called policeRead MoreEthics And Character Analysis Interviews1677 Words   |  7 Pagesproperty. In most cases, however, we hear news of police officer involvement in criminal activities or unethical behavior such as theft, robbery, abuse of authority and excessive coercion. The indication of police using force against suspects and committing crimes does not appear favorable to the public because people have entrusted them for their protection. Therefore, to address and effectively reduce crime, practitioners in the criminal justice system at the federal, state, and local levels mustRead MoreEthical Issues in Criminal Justice Essay647 Words   |  3 Pagesthe Criminal Justice field today. If the police force condoned unethical behavior, there would be very little, if any, justice being served. Official police misconduct is any â€Å"objectionable actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties, which can lead to a miscarriage of justice†. (wikipedia.com). However, â€Å"police misconduct may include a broader range of misconduct, reflecting the high standards that we expect of police officers. Unlike official misconduct, police misconductRead MorePolice Brutality And The Law Enforcement846 Words   |  4 Pagesbecoming more frequent over the past couple of years. When you hear about these cases of police brutality, how often is it that law enforcement officials are punished for the crime they have perpetrated? Most of the time the law enforcement officials, who are very well in the wrong do not get any kind of punishment whatsoever for the crimes that they have committed and it all comes back to the power that they have. Police brutality cases have been on the rise in the last couple of years where it is notRead MoreDiscretion Within The Criminal Justice Process1667 Words   |  7 PagesDiscretion in policing and the court system is a necessary and unavoidable facet of crim inal justice work, yet it is still very controversial. Discretion exists when courtroom actors (police officers, attorneys, judges) have the flexibility to choose an appropriate response to a situation. Police discretion is defined as â€Å"The opportunity of law enforcement officers to exercise choice in their daily activities† (Nowacki, 2015). This means that actors with a great deal of discretion at their disposalRead MoreThe Canadian Justice System Is Built On The Principal Of The Presumption Of Innocence1707 Words   |  7 PagesThe Canadian Justice System is built on the principal of the presumption of innocence where emphasis is placed on on ensuring that the innocent go free rather than the guilty being convicted (Huff, 2013). However, miscarriages of justice occur when an individual is wrongfully conviction, and such an occurrence tarnishes the system’s reputation greatly (Campbell Denov, 2005). According to the edited case files presented by Moldaver (2009 ), Romeo Phillion was wrongly convicted of the murder of anRead MorePolice Brutality : Public And Critical Eye1052 Words   |  5 PagesOntiveros Mr. Haven ENG110-23 April 13, 2016 Police Brutality Throughout many year police has become more aggressive towards the people of color. They have excessively used their power to discriminate and brutally beat minorities. Police brutality is a very serious problem that many Americans face today. Police should be held accountable for their misconduct towards people of color and be punished severely. Police action in particularly to police abuse has come to the attention of the world wideRead MoreMoral Ethics1041 Words   |  5 Pageswith criminal justice ethics, organizational culture may influence the level at which ethics would be applied. Additionally, when handling matters of police misconduct, ethics are likely to be compromised. This assertion is due to some organizational cultural practices practiced by most police departments. For instance, when dealing with misconduct within the police department, the most preferred means used are legal means. The other alternative to use in addressing the issues of police misconductRead MoreThe United States Criminal Justice System Essay1463 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States criminal justice system can be described as flawed in many ways. Some of these flaws have a larger impact on the people of this country than others. Two of the largest problems we have currently revolve around the issues of wrongful convictions and prosecutorial misconduct. The whole criminal justice system revolves around making sure people follow the laws put in place, and if they do not punish them for their wrongdoing. This system is also about affording the same rights to everyRead MoreThe Use Of Dna Tests For Hair And Blood Samples897 Words   |  4 Pagesinvestigative process. Police misconduct or mistaken eyewitness testimony can ruin the rest of a person’s life. The criminal justice system can be changed to prevent the latter by reforming the type of evidence allowed to be used when convicti ng a person. Most cases of wrongful conviction are either police initiated, which begin with the assumption that a specific person is guilty, or witness initiated, which contains an articulate eyewitness testimony. Police Initiated Police investigations often

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Robert Frost Poetry Analysis Essay - 792 Words

Robert Frost takes our imagination to a journey through wintertime with #8232;his two poems Desert Places and Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. These two poems reflect the beautiful scenery that is present in the snow covered woods and awakens us to new feelings. Even though these poems both have winter settings they contain very different tones. One has a feeling of depressing loneliness and the other a feeling of welcome solitude. They show how the same setting can have totally different impacts on a person depending on #8232;their mindset at the time. These poems are both made up of simple stanzas and diction but they are not straightforward poems. In the poem Desert Places the speaker is a man who is traveling†¦show more content†¦The speakers depression stems mainly from his unwanted responsibility and feeling of regret. The basic conflict in the poem, which is resolved in the last stanza, is between an attraction toward the woods and the drudgery of life and responsibility outside of the woods. And miles to go before I sleep,/ And miles to go before I sleep (line 15-16). The tone of the speaker in Desert Places is opposite of Stopping by Woods, the speaker is much more bothered by his emotions and portrays a deep dark depressing mood. As the snow throws its blanket of whiteness over everything, to the speaker, it is a feeling of numbness. The loneliness includes me unawares (line 9). The speaker has lost his passion for life and is also in denial about feeling alone. He is at a stage where he just does not care about too much and he is feeling a bit paranoid. They cannot scare me with their empty spaces (line 13). He is saying who cares how I feel; I do not need anyone else. I have in me so much nearer home/ To scare myself with my own desert places (line 15-16). The speaker was starting to realize that he had shut himself off to the world. He recognized that this winter place was like his life. He had let depression and loneliness creep in and totally take over like the snow that had crept up on the woods and covered it. If he continues to let thes e feelings runShow MoreRelatedPoetry Analysis Robert Frost Essay733 Words   |  3 PagesPOETRY ANALYSIS: DESIGN Robert Frosts poem Design seemingly disputes the question whether there is a design to life; yet, he is not able to establish an answer. Despite the comlexity of his poem his implied message is rather simple. Frosts statement clarified humans eagerness to finding a meaning to life and an essential background and reason to events, regardless of how small and insignificant they might be. His work states an advice not to interpret too much into insignificant conincidencesRead MoreAnalysis Of Robert Frost s Poetry1219 Words   |  5 Pagesthan a modern poet, it is difficult to place him in the main current of modern poetry. (1962:138) Because Frost s poetry has been responsive and illustrative of the Americans taste and aspirations, the latter have considered him their singer and bard to be acclaimed as America s Grand Man of Poetry as pointed out by Adlia Stevenson. (Grave,1985:2). Moreover, who is generally considered as one of the most prominent American poets of the 20th century, he is a symbolist poet on the groundsRead MoreRobert Frost s Writing Style1589 Words   |  7 Pages Robert Frost once said, â€Å"The figure a poem makes. It begins in delight and ends in wisdom... in a clarification of life - not necessarily a great clarification, such as sects and cults are founded on, but in a momentary stay against confusion† (Robert Frost Quotes). This same kind of thinking opened the door for metaphorical poetry that helped to show the poets transparency. His love for the social outcast and the struggles of his life are exhibited greatly in his poems. Robert Frost helpedRead MoreThe Biography of Robert Lee Frost600 Words   |  3 Pages The Biography of Robert Lee Frost Introduction: Robert Frost was described as one of the most greatest poets in the 20th century and became a sensation for poetry. Its not just his poems that interest the reader, but also his quotes can fulfill your compassion. For example, â€Å"No tears in the writer, no tears in the reader. No surprise in the writer, no surprise in the reader† written by Robert Frost. He is explaining if the reader does not feel the connection in the writers thought, the writerRead MoreEssay about Analysis of the Poems of Robert Frost1316 Words   |  6 Pagesthan Robert Frost. Robert Frost is a poet that is well known for his poetic contributions to nature, as well as his award winning poems. His poetic ability and knowledge make him an extraordinary author. His past; including schooling, family, and the era in which he wrote influenced nearly all of his poems in some way. This very famous poet contributed to the modernism era, had a family and an interesting life story, and a unique poetic style as we ll. The literary era in which Robert Frost wroteRead MoreModern F. Robert Frost1547 Words   |  7 PagesDavid Ahlman Charles Vogel English 2520-601 Due Date: November 9th, 2015 Robert Frost: Modern Multiplicity Robert Frost is a multiple poet. –Louis Untermeyer What is customary and, therefore, stereotypical of modern artistic thought is the belief that only one central meaning can be gathered from any one reading; that these singular interpretations support, give credence and justify hegemonic forces or grand narratives in society. Defining the term â€Å"modern† in his work The Postmodern Condition:Read MoreAnalysis Of The Poem My August Guest By Robert Frost Essay1378 Words   |  6 PagesPaper #1: Formalist Analysis The term â€Å"formalism† refers to a critical approach that analyzes, interprets, or evaluates the features of a text. These features include not only grammar and syntax but also literary devices such as meter, and metaphor. The formalist approach does not pay attention to a text s historical, biographical, or geographical context. A formal analysis, is the formal analyzation of a text. This paper will delve into the formal analysis of two distinct poems, written by differentRead MoreThe Road Not Taken By Robert Frost1221 Words   |  5 PagesWhile gazing at the farmland on the rural outskirts of Derry, NH, Robert Frost created an American masterpiece. â€Å"The Road Not Taken†, is a dynamic and deep poem orchestrated to perfection. However, equal to its acclaim, is the misunderstanding of the poem. A piece of literature of this stature deserves to be under the microscope of our classes critical discussions. I believe that the time would be beneficial to everyone. Giv ing a breath of fresh air to a poem that has been abused by Hallmark cardsRead MoreEssay on Robert Frosts Life and Accomplishments1244 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"In three words I can sum up everything I’ve learned about life: it goes on.† After a lifetime of ups and downs, Robert Frost said this quote. Most of his poems already shared his message, that life is not as easy as it may first appear to be. He used the simplicity of nature and vernacular speech to give his poems a casual mood, though underneath they display a much deeper meaning of life. These poems help to show people just some of the difficult things that will be faced in life, despite everythingRead MoreEssay on Robert Frost1443 Words   |  6 Pages Robert Lee Frost was born in San Francisco on March 26, 1874 and died in Boston on January 29, 1963. Frost was considered to be one of America’s leading 20th century poets and a four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. He was an essentially pastoral poet who was often associated with rural New England. Frost wrote poems of a philosophical region. His poems were traditional but he often said as a dig at his archrival Carl Sandburg, that â€Å"he would soon play tennis without a net as write free verse

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Corruption in Law Enforcement free essay sample

What ever happened to the righteous law enforcement officers who abided by what they enforced? Today the numbers of people who have been exposed to unnecessary force by police officers has begun to rise substantially. In 2002, large state and local law enforcement agencies received more that 26,000 citizen complaints. Statistics have shown that there is corruption in not only the officers themselves, but the law enforcement department as well. Most of the cases that are filed regarding inappropriate use of force from officers are either disregarded or written off. There are only about 8% of the complaints that actually are sustained and disciplinary actions taken against the subject officers. This trend is evident in all branches and divisions of the police department, from the municipal police, to the county police. These statistics were brought up by the 2003 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), with sponsoring from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). We will write a custom essay sample on Corruption in Law Enforcement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They developed a method to come up with all of these statistics called the Police Public Contact Survey (PPCS). This questioned citizens about their interactions with police officers during the previous 12 months. After the survey, there were 26,556 citizen complaints about police received. 84% of those complaints were for the municipal department, 11% for the sheriffs’ office, and 3% for both the county police and the primary state law enforcement. Of all of these complaints from victims, only a mere 8% of the officers received disciplinary action. The complaints can be dismissed or voided due to several different reasons; if there was insufficient evidence, complaints were unfounded, the officer’s actions were found to be lawful and proper, or the complaint was simply withdrawn. This outrage is not just confined to solely the United States, there are similar things happening in Wales and England. At the end of March, 2003, the police in England and Wales received a total of 6,154 complaints alleging assault by officers. The law enforcement is abusing its power around the globe. When the civilians really began to complain there were some agencies that created a civilian complaint review board (CCRB). Those agencies that had one in their jurisdiction saw a greater amount of complaints coming in than those agencies that didn’t have a CCRB. There were 158 per agency that had a review bored versus 18 per agency that didn’t have one. With the dawning of 2003, 82% of large Municipal Police departments had an internal affairs unit; this proved to be a problem for those departments that contained one. The overall citizen complaints rate was much larger in those that had a unit rather than those that didn’t. The ratio was 54:5 which is quite a significant difference. However, one thing that the internal affairs unit did do was it made the complaints twice as likely to be found not sustained than in agencies without a unit. Finally in 2003, the municipal agencies began using personnel monitoring systems which were computer-based officer performance monitoring systems. One would assume that the rate of unnecessary force from police officers would begin to dissipate, but it didn’t. The overall rate of force complaints was higher on a per agency basis! Shortly afterwards, 53% of the large municipal police departments drew up a written policy of external investigation. The policy stated that all citizen complaints of inappropriate force receive separate investigation outside the commanding area of the accused officer. This just caused the number of complaints to go up once again. Administrative appeal was then introduced in attempt to give the accusing citizens justice. Those agencies that had an appeal saw a lower number of complaints that those that didn’t have one. Another method that was introduced in 2003 was collective bargaining; this would often cover disciplinary processes and, sometimes handle citizen complaints. That method was used by 73% of the municipal police departments and caused an unsurprising increase in the number of complaints from citizens. All of these methods were devised during 2003 in attempt to cover up the misuse of authority and power of law enforcement. All of them did now render the departments the results that they wanted. Only with time can we hope that the original and proper intents and actions of law enforcement officers will return and bring justice and peace to our communities once again.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Modern Day †Research Paper Essay Sample free essay sample

I. Approval Sheet In a Modern twenty-four hours of engineering new appliances and devices are exist while many human existences are addicted on it. I wonder why in our past coevals. why many of us can make the same things without the usage of new engineering? In fact. many of them become hardworking because there are no tools or devices must utilize. In our twenty-four hours today called â€Å"Day of Modernity† all human existences become lazy they depend on the devices which our discoverer and scientist made or develop. As twelvemonth and clip base on balls by our universe is good hi-tech ( High Technology ) . many people are more lazy. In Addition. I made this sort of Research works to halt all human Beings who exist in our starship called the planet Earth to cognize what are the causes and effects when the depend on engineering and what are some stairss to be independent while modern engineering came in. We will write a custom essay sample on Modern Day – Research Paper Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I asked one of the pupil in Marigondon National High School Where I Studied whose named is Jade Alcantara a 3rd twelvemonth high school all about why they cut categories due to computing machine games? I quote â€Å" Ang ubang estudyante minute cutting ug klase pareha nako parity makalimtan Air National Guard mga problema nga naa SA ilang kinabuhi pareha nako! Ug usa sab kay maglinga-lingaw sad myocardial infarction ginagmay† Unqoute. We must O.K. this research work to halt or to act upon all human existences particularly pupils to be non an nut in computing machine games and seeking to prosecute to work hard. to hold a strong finding if they want to accomplish one time ends or things. place and I want your blessing all about my research paper as what you know my concern is? Needed the blessing of our instructor in English IV which Mrs. Mae Zafra as her demands for the 4th grading period. II. Recognition Writing is non a lone attempts. particularly it is non a computing machine games that is easy to accomplish. and as ever. there are many people to thank for giving their energy and attempts to complete this research paper. many ways to honour. Of class. I’d thought a batch of different manner to state thank you harmonizing to the list is our God from heaven above which give me the strength to do my work. the finding. the inspiration that I could complete my research works and particularly â€Å"I Googled It! † ( Without looking it up can you do your ain research paper ) through this web site it helps me a batch! It makes me inquire a things or a words which is unfamiliar to me and it gives me a significance same as a dictionary. particularly reading some books ; through this I can garner all the information all about the said subject and it makes me all things wonder which I could compose a batch of information through my research. At the top of my list is I want to state thank you my friend Andrew Pineda for giving all his attempts and his sentiment of what is computing machine dependence towards modernness is? All I want to state you’re such a cherished as a diamond because I care for you and I don’t want you to lose in my bosom such like a diamond friend you have which is me! I know at the underside of your bosom in my bosom excessively we will be everlastingly and of all time be a labakabadubiEEE friend as many old ages and yearss tand clip base on balls by. which decease can divide our friendly relationship. Barkada’s Next ; Ivan Cuyag. Sept Joshua Lozada. and Jade Alcantara for all the yearss chew the fating and murmuring with me all about my work. giving me an thought of how can I make my research works. all of your moral supports helps a batch to complete my research paper and being as my interviewee. Who gave me strength. finding to complete my research paper even though there are tonss of things I’ve ask you. That your replies are non rectify its O.K. because I know if who you are and what you have done every clip we talk. All I can state â€Å"Terima Kasih† intending thank you in Indonesian. Nicholas Sparks. for being my inspiration as an writer. I want to research unfamiliar words which you’ve done in every books that you have even though I would non be the same as you I’ll seek my best to be your fan. I’ve explore a batch of words which hard to me through the aid of my â€Å"lubhidubhiee† lexicon which is the Miriam Webster Dictionary ; thanks for giving me all the significance of the words which is difficult to me I know without you I can’t make my research perfect as you. Mrs. Mae Zafra ; my fantastic and beautiful instructor who give us the chance to do a sort of research paper to be our usher when we took up college that we will be made our paper easier through her aid that we made a child of plants which college pupil have done all I can state â€Å"je zo’n groot leraar hebben we† a Dutch linguistic communication which intend YOUR SUCH A GREAT TEACHER WE HAVE. III. Abstract Many several old ages have passed and Modern Technology came in. As what we saw many people depend on engineering. In fact. some human being usage engineering as their day-to-day activity wont alternatively of holding some physical activity which some become lazy. from the word dependence you can all state. it is excessively much usage of something or excessively much drama this in every activity of your life. There are some pupil cut categories because of engineering ( Computer Game ) . Me. myself and I try to research more. why do people go an nut? What is the ground why they engage this sort of activity which is bad? But some people use the engineering in good manner 91 % of them is to be exact make this sort of activity. In fact. it is the chief job for the parents and the large inquiry grade. inquiry for the parents such as â€Å"Why my kid addicted in engineering appliances? † and what should we make to halt their dependence? Nowadays. the kids spend their clip in the co mputing machine. for them it’s the games and engineering epoch non the bike epoch once more. It is how the new engineering affects the neurotransmitters of the users. How they become addict for our modern engineering came in. Parents get covetous with computing machine because their eggs ( Children ) give more clip to the computing machine than them. But some of the kids feel same as the state of affairs. Computer! Gives the followers ; Happiness. Makes our work efficient. it is now our chief wont. as our merriment. But we don’t cognize as an Individual we all know its bad effects to us it makes our life ruin it made us lazy. don’t have a clip to read because we depend on it ( Computer ) neer read some informational books. merely Google it! And one chink the reply will look. addicted! †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ . Bored! it is the one ground who pursue us that we can utilize of computing machine. Games will do us merriment we will neer be bored through it but allow all retrieve its consequence which is enormous as I can state!